Images for Mathematics

A doughnut shape with 2 holes

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The theorem of classification of the surfaces states that any compact, connected, orientable surface without boundary can be related to a standard surface. We can visualize these standard surfaces as spheres with some handles attached or, otherwise, as doughnuts with a certain number of holes. The figure shows an example of doughnut with 2 holes; we can easily imagine donuts with a greater or smaller number of holes.

The image belongs to the sections...:
The double torus (Topology)
Standard surfaces (Topology)


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